The 15 of March of 1751, on the banks of the Guayalejo River, in congregation chickens, the town of Escandón was founded with the arrival of approximately 100 families under the command of Captain Nicolás Álvarez, conferring that name in honor of the colonizer José de Escandón Helguera.
Later it was changed downstream due to the continuous attacks of the Indians janambres and pisones, shortly after they return to settle in congregation chickens.
In 1753, he was captain of the Villa Antonio de Puga who replaced the first Captain Nicolás Álvarez, being - governor of the state Lucas Fernández the 27 of October of 1828 decree the change of name by the one of Xicotencatl; in honor of the Tlaxcalteca hero, Felipe Santiago Xicoténcatl.
The Villa de Escandón, today Xicoténcatl, was founded on the 15 of March of 1751, with the invocation of the "Dulce nombre de Jesús", by Captain Nicolás Álvarez.
For the first time the Villa was planted in a place known as "La Gallina", today ejido Francisco Castellanos, although after nine months the villagers had to leave this place, fleeing the janambres Indians and other tribes that harassed them and made them victims. of theft.
The colonists agreed to settle in a place called "The Mission", by the mouth of the cold river, where they also did not stay long harassed by the epidemics that decimated them due to the proliferation of the mosquito of malaria.
Once again the families settled in "La Gallina", living a relative peace, after the battering ordered against the aborigines Don José de Escandón, "Conde de Sierra Gorda".
The Villa de Escandón changed the name of Xicoténcatl, in honor of the Tlaxcalteca warrior. it was by decree of the state congress, being governor Don Lucas Fernandez, issued the 27 of October of 1826.
The City of Xicoténcatl, before Escandón and during the colonization, was called "Tencaxhual" it was located in what is now the site of the ranchito Los Victorinos, extending along the left bank of the Guayalejo River, to the Moctezuma ejido.
In 1748, the Viceroy of New Spain, Conde de Revillagiego, entrusted José de Escandón with the colonizing campaign, who arrived in Nuevo Santander, today Tamaulipas and in what was his second population campaign, promoted the foundation of Escandón, today Xicoténcatl.
The first inhabitants were brought from Santa Bárbara (today Ocampo), Palmillas and Jaumave, establishing the Villa with 70 families, initially, calling it, "Dulce nombre de Jesús" and it was not until after definitively settled where it is now that it was named Villa of Escandón.
The first inhabitants met their needs with abundant harvests of corn, which together with livestock, was the basis of the economic life of the town; In addition, the river Guayalejo provided different species of fish for sustenance.
The 23 of June of 1768 arrived at the then Villa de Escandón the lawyer of the royal councils, Don José Osorio y Llamas, commissioned by the Viceroy of New Spain, to distribute land and livestock.
In the municipality, after the year of 1910 several haciendas flourished, standing out among these, the panocha, the saltpeter, the stone, the victory and Santa Cruz; whose production gave the economic life to the region, today they have disappeared to make way for the ejidos.
In an extraordinary session of the town hall, being Eugenio Aguilar Rodríguez, municipal president, the town was exalted to the category of city of Xicoténcatl, when it already had 6 thousand 109 inhabitants.
Chronology of historical events
- 1751 The March 15, founding of the Villa de Escandón.
- 1828 The October 27 changed its name to Xicoténcatl.
- 1888 On October 1, 1888, the Gulf railway company, started construction workers for the Tampico - Monterrey railway network. The 23 of October of 1891 was inaugurated the route.
- 1891 The flag station of the railroad was the Osorio town (today streets) and the Villa de Escandón, and in 1908 the official stop was changed to Osorio
- 1920 A cabinetmaker named Bernardo Zárate, built the first kiosk, which was later demolished in 1950 and in its place a new one was built, being municipal president, Othon Núñez de Cáceres.
- 1922 The first motor cars made their appearance in Xicoténcatl in 1922, being the brothers José and Pedro Medeles the pioneers of the rental car service.
- 1930 In 1930 a gap was drawn to link the village with Magiscatin and joining it with the gravel road that led to the port of Tampico. the work was on the verge of not concluding due to the opposition of strong interests, being the main opponent a son of the general Plutarco Elías Streets, that at that time was in Cd. Mante.
- 1946 The construction of two important works that came to give an economic boom to Xicoténcatl was concluded: the sugar mill and the Guayalejo irrigation system.
- 1959 In the lands of the municipality of Xicoténcatl, five kilometers north of the city, there is a plain of sedentary composition of the Quaternary era and in a place called the salitrillo, the 13 of February of 1959, a worker who was hunting discovered at ground level, in lands eroded by the rains, remains of fossils of great proportions, giving themselves, from the discovery, to call the place the "Valley of the Mamuts"
- 1967 It is elevated to the category of city.
- Eliseo Céspedes Federal Deputy of the Constituent Congress of 1917.
- Antonio Delgado Ruiz narrator and poet.
- Tomás Garza Martínez (1890-1918) Military Revolutionary
- Adrián Morales Rodríguez (1892-) Poet
- Manuel Morales Rodríguez (1883-)
- Alfredo Sánchez Marroquín Chemical Engineer, Master and Doctor of Sciences.
- Historical monuments
Monuments erected to General and Licenciado Aarón Sanz Garza, in the sugar mill that bears his name to Don Benito Juárez and Don Miguel Hidalgo in the main square.
Disused building, in the former hacienda.
The advice; and one more built in the 19th century, located on the former San Gabriel farm.
As for pictorial works, we find that of Jesús Almanza Ríos, entitled Lord of the Resurrection and Foundation of Tenochtitlán, embodied in the Dulce Nombre de Jesús Church and the Pedro José Méndez Federal Secondary School, respectively.
The most outstanding are: March 15, the date on which the foundation of the Villa de Escandón, today Xicoténcatl, and the last Sunday of January in which the celebration of the Sweet Name of Jesus takes place.
Literature, music and poetry
Of the literary genre, the works of Antonio Delgado, entitled because of the equinoxes, figurations in the fire and the Unicorns; Adrián Morales, My first verses and about the Ara of pain.
The municipality is located in the Guayalejo River hydrological basin, in the southern portion of the State; It has a surface extension of 837.68 square kilometers, representing 1.58% with respect to the State territory.
The municipal head is located at 22º39'48 "north latitude and 0º10'10" west longitude, at an altitude of 131 meters above sea level.
It borders to the north with the municipality of Llera, to the south with that of Mante, to the east with that of González and to the west with that of Gómez Farías. The municipality of Xicoténcatl is constituted by 212 localities, of which the most important are: Xicoténcatl (municipal seat), Emiliano Zapata, Independencia and Rosendo G. Castro.
The Guayalejo River crosses the municipality from northeast to southwest, directing its runoff to the Pánuco River. It also has the Xicoténcatl dam located in the northwest region of the municipality, as well as the Emilio Portes Gil dam, which are fed by the Guayalejo river.
It is distinguished by its semi-warm climate, with rain in summer in the west, in the center and east of the municipality; the average annual temperature fluctuates between 22ºc and 26ºc; The average annual rainfall varies between 500 and 800 cubic millimeters, prevailing the south and southeast winds.
Most of the land is flat, only some small portions north and northeast of the municipality are occupied by slope, without being of consideration.
Classification and land use
The predominant soil unit is vertisol, which allows agricultural development.
Flora and fauna
The existing vegetation in the municipality is very diverse, since we find from the low deciduous forest that covers an 80%, being composed the rest by scrub crasirosurifolio thorny, under thorny, deciduous forest and subinerme scrub.
In terms of fauna, we find hare, armadillo, rabbit, badger, skunk, chachalaca, viper, white-tailed deer, fox and coyote.Suggest Edition