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Tula

Introduction

Fray Juan Bautista de Moliendo was a native of Postugalete, Vizcaya, near Bilbao, Spain. He came to New Spain and took the Franciscan habit in the convent of Acámbaro, Guanajuato, where he studied the Otomí language with the idea of ​​evangelizing the Indians. In 1607, along with Fray Juan de Cárdenas, barefoot and carrying a bit of toasted corn for luggage, they arrived at Santa Catarina, then at Pinihuan where the Father of Mollinedo celebrated a mass, from there they went to Lagunillas and then to the Maíz Valley, all these places belonging to the current state of San Luis Potosí, to finally raise the church in Tula. In all these places he preached, catechized and promised to send ministers to instruct the Indians (mascorros, pames, cuachichiles, pizones, cisanes, coyotes, etc.) and found churches. On his return to the lack of permission of King Felipe III for the evangelization of these places. The March 5 of 1612 authorized the Marquis of Guadalcazar to carry out the conversion of the Indians of Río Verde, Cerro Gordo and Jaumave. When the Viceroy asked Mollinedo to report on his trip to 1607, he said that he had been received with great love for the Indians and that some small and married eight large couples were baptized, so he was granted those places with his Companion Juan de Cárdenas. The procedures took about ten years, since it was until the 1º of July of 1617, with the same formality and circumstances as in the previous places, he took possession of San Antonio de Tula, where he left Fray Diego de Espinoza as manager of the conversion of the natives.

Time later, Tula happened to belong in the political and military thing to the justice of Valles.

In 1703 its population consisted of Spaniards, mestizos, mulattos and Indian wolves, coyotes, pames and pizones, among others, its captain lived in front of the current parish in an adobe house with its corrals and rooms for 16 soldiers.

When José de Escandón arrived in Tula with the title of lieutenant of Viceroy on the coast of the Mexican Seno, for its conquest, pacification and colonization, had a large population, formed in two thirds by Indians and mestizos and the other by Spaniards. It was then that the outline of the population was made.

When the inhabitants of Tula learned of the events in Dolores the 15 of September of 1810, a conspiracy was organized under Mateo Acuña and with the participation of Reyas Pérez, chiefs of the indigenous people of the Tula mission. There was the first armed uprising the December 4, when Bernando López de Lara entered the barracks of the dragons and took up arms for the insurgents. After bloody fights, the royalists took Mateo Acuña prisoner and hanged him in this town; but Bernardo Gómez, the "Indian huacal", gathered a new army and the 9 of June of 1811 was presented in Matehuala, San Luis Potosí, where he took the place, which was defended by Lieutenant José Velázquez.

By decree of 17 of October of 1835 Tula was granted the title of City that for 1843 had a population of 9,387 inhabitants; in 1873 it was promoted to 16 000. Its inhabitants were engaged in trade, since it was the center of communications between the ports of the Gulf and the border. Also, they were dedicated to the cultivation and benefit of the lechuguilla, occupying daily more than two thousand workers, when the fourth district of Tamaulipas was created, it was granted the title of head but the 25 of March of 1866, during the occupation of the square by the forces of the French colonel Charles Dupin, said district was suppressed.

Chronology of historical events

  • 1617 Foundation of Tula the 22 of July of 1617.
  • 1810 At the end of September or beginning of October the news of the uprising of priest Hidalgo in Dolores arrive in Tula, which are received with interest, being spread among those dissatisfied with Spanish domination. They began to form clandestine meetings where ardent desire arose to second, the head of the garrison, consisting of 50 dragons, took the measures that the case required but continued to increase the concerns. Those who sympathized with Hidalgo, met secretly in the house of Lucas Zúñiga, embodying the ideas of insurrection. The fair that currently takes place in the village and started on All Saints' Day, first in November, arrived in those days. By then the conspiracy had been formalized and had as its leader a farmer named Mateo Acuña, who is mainly responsible for the organization of the insurgent movement, conquering the governor Reyes Pérez, chief of the Indians of the mission in Tula. The fair had made go to the population of the field, taking advantage of this opportunity to extend the idea of ​​the uprising. Among the conspirators there were two who distinguished themselves by their decision and courage: Bernardo Gómez Lara and his cousin Martín known as the huacales. The 4 of December, Bernardo tried to enter, with peaceful appearance, the barracks of the Spanish garrison, the sentinel interposed, Bernardo took the gun and hitting it with her head, made him fall dead without exhaling any scream. Going to the weapons bank, he threw them into the street, being snatched away by the crowd that had come after his boss; the soldiers locked themselves in the barracks that was besieged by the mutineers. This site lasted until the night of December 7, when the priest of the parish ordered the chief of the insurgents to be asked to leave to allow the procession of the Purísima to leave, going to besiege the place called the Mission.

Taking advantage of this situation and favored by the darkness, the soldiers furtively left the barracks and escaped from the town, Tula being the first in Tamaulipas to support the insurgent movement of 1810.

  • 1835 Tula is granted the title of city.
  • 1846 The 23 of September, when the Yankee troops took the city of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, the then governor of Tamaulipas, General Don Francisco Vital Fernandez, arranges the transfer of the state powers from Victoria to Tula and the 6 of January of 1847 he informs his fellow citizens from Palmillas, Tamaulipas. Tula was capital of the state of Tamaulipas, from December of 1846 to February of 1847.
  • 1865 Don Pedro José Méndez, takes the city of Tula from the 4 in June, from there the street he entered now bears his name and a perpendicular to it, the name of 4 in June.

Pedro José Méndez, leaves Tula the 15 of July towards Santa Bárbara (today city Ocampo and there defeats to the French commander Valles).

The French commander Delhoye takes to Tula the 16 of August, the 21 of September Delhoye leaves Tula to protect a conduit that went towards Tampico.

1895 Enter Tula from San Luis Potosí, Lieutenant Colonel Colonna de Orano, the November 11. The November 14 that year leaves Tula this force.

  • 1836 Tula falls into the hands of the Republican troops commanded by commander Francisco G. Vargas, the 19 of May.
    The legendary Coahuilan military Aureliano Rivera took the city of Tula the 7 in June.
  • 1910 The November 22 is pronounced in the fourth district of Tamaulipas, Professor Alberto Carrera Torres and other citizens, seconding the San Luis Plan.

The December 8 Colonel José F. Montecinos goes out to fight Carrera Torres, organizing in passing the voluntary regiment of Tamaulipas.

  • 1911 Carrera Torres, the 21 of May takes the city of Tula, the 23 of May Carrera Torres appoints Mayor of Tula to Don Gilberto Sustaita.
  • 1913 In March, Jesús Dávila Sánchez, Carrancista chief takes the city of Tula.
  • 1915 The 1º of January, Carrera Torres, moves from Tula to Ciudad Victoria, his troops fight in the Hacienda de la Maroma and Las Pilas, against the Carrancistas Agapito Lastra and José Guerra.

The January 5, Generals Alberto Carrera Torres and Miguel Zapata, attack the capital of Tamaulipas, but are rejected by the troops of General Luis Caballero.

The 7 of May Carrera Torres returns to Victoria that was in the hands of the Villistas under the command of General Máximo García and this puts it in the hands of Carrera Torres.

Illustrious people

  • Isaura Calderón, poetess of great renown, in 1964 obtains the first place in the literary-historical-geographical contest, of the Autonomous University of Tamaulipas.
  • José Eustaquio Fernández, doctor of theology, priest, writer and politician (1780-1843)
  • Francisco Ruiz Reyes, worked tirelessly in favor of mutualism, for what was called Benemérito del Mutualismo Nacional and founder of the branch number five, Manuel Villasana Ortiz, dependent of the Alliance Society of Ciudad Victoria.
  • Francisco Saldaña, lawyer, politician and governor of the state from 1869 to 1878.
  • Emilio Vázquez Gómez, lawyer, occupied the portfolio of Interior in the interim cabinet of León de la Barra; in 1912 he takes up arms with Pascual Orozco. (1856-1926)
  • Esteban Núñez Narváez, poet
  • Francisco Vázquez Gómez, personal physician of Porfirio Díaz, Secretary of Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of Francisco I. Madero, and Minister of Public Education in León de la Barra (1860-1933)
  • Manuel Villasana Ortiz, teacher normalista, director of the School Benito Juárez during 45 years (-1932)

Monuments

During the colonial period a pool was built in the town of San Antonio de Tula where the water was collected, the area around the spring was paved, called Paso de la Purisima because the virgin was planted in one of its checkpoints.

Another of the historic buildings of Tula is the Chapel of the Loma of the old pantheon on the side of the neighborhood, this place served as a military strategy during the revolutionary confrontations, there buried some of the fallen.

Undoubtedly, the most attractive building in Tula is the Casa Minerva, built during the last decade of the 19th century. The building passed into the hands of the state government due to the fiscal problems that the owner had, it became the school number 2 of the town.

Today it is the House of Culture is located on Hidalgo Street, its plant leans on a hillside and boasts a long row of doors whose jaws ojivoles give a gothic touch.

Another example of Toltec architecture is the Chapel of the Rosary built during the Porfiriato, it has a golden dome, filigree finishes and polished wooden floors, the Chapel built by the Brotherhood of the Rosary was inaugurated in 1905.

Temple of the Rosary, built by the sisters of the Rosary, inaugurated at the end of the present century; Temple of the Agustinas, Minerva building, built during the last decade of the 19th century, it was until 1922 secondary school and later school Minerva. Today, it is the House of Culture, Temple of San Antonio de Padua, here is housed a clock considered a symbol of the tultecos, as through a board and with the support of Mrs. Maria Fabiana Sebastiana Cármen Romero Rubio, who was born in this city and was the wife of Don Porfirio Díaz, was acquired, an 18th century construction; Exhacienda Cerro Gordo and Exhacienda de la Verdolaga.

Historical monuments

Monument to Juan B. Mollinedo, located in the Bertha del Avellano playground; Alberto Carrera Torres, located at the beginning of the avenue of the same name; Manuel Villasana Ortíz, at Miguel Hidalgo Elementary School; Benito Juarez is located in front of the school of the same name; and Francisco I. Madero.

Archaeological monuments

In the La Laguna ejido there is the Tamajul pyramid, which is in the study stage and will soon be open to the public; pasture of La Palma, the Colonel and the Pintas there are archaeological remains.

Popular parties

The 3 of May is celebrated to the Lord of Amparo. This adoration takes place in the Chapel of Las Angustias, in the neighborhood of the stones, in the municipal seat. There is venerated in his day an image of the crucified Christ dedicated to shelter, whose headquarters is in the ejido de yerbabuena, the neighboring municipality of Guadalcázar, having displaced the original patron of the Chapel, the Lord of Sorrows. The party consists of religious veneration in the image of a priest, in addition to the dance and mitote of dance figures, standing and on horseback, or pastorelas; the 15 of May, to San Isidro, which starts the 14 day at night, dancing house by house to continue the dance in a bower, all day 15 that continues at night and ends the 16. The dancers are infantry and cavalry accompanied by violin and guitar.

The 13 of June, the festivities in honor of San Antonio. Its origin dates from the same foundation, at the beginning of the XVII century. San Antonio is venerated days before, with "wax tickets" made by different popular corporations, which are organized in the different neighborhoods of the city. In his day, he is removed from the church and there is a run through the streets, in addition to religious veneration by the clergy. During the month of July, the 17 day is celebrated the festivities of the Virgen del Carmen, image venerated in the Chapel of the Rosary, Jicote de Tula neighborhood. This is a very popular veneration in San Luis Potosí, transcended to the southwest of Tamaulipas. He is religiously venerated and taken out in a short procession. There are also dancing on foot and on horseback, as well as pastorelas; in December 24 and 25, in the town of Santa Ana de Naola, last site of an indigenous community of the entity (now disappeared), is celebrated every two years the nativity of Jesus, represented with great color and participation of attendees; Holy Week in the Contadero, municipality of Tula-Ocampo. This Sanctuary is located in the municipal limit of Tula and Ocampo, on an old way that communicates to the high plateau and the Huasteca. It is a small cave where the figure of Guadalupe is engraved, chronologically locatable with security towards the second half of the XVIII century. The party consists in the visit of numerous pilgrims from the Huasteca of Tamaulipas and Potosina, including an important group of Huastec Indians; Pilgrims also come from the Huastec plateau. The Virgin is venerated with litanies and chants, singing the mañanitas on Good Friday. At the foot of the mountain where the Sanctuary is located a small provisional settlement is formed, around the eye of Agua de Callejones; and December's 12 is also revered, albeit on a smaller scale.

Foods

The enchiladas tultecas, unique in the state, prepared with red tortillas, cheese, chorizo, lettuce, onion, tomato, peas, chili pepper, in vinegar and a piece of chicken; the ground pumpkin seed pipián, with color chile, nopalitos, chochas, fat of oven, arepitas and tamales.

Confectionery

Almond cheese, chilacayote, ponteduro, pumpkin and sweet potato.

Drinks

Champurrado, atole of corn and tile.

Traditional costumes

La cuera tamaulipeca, in both sexes

Handicrafts

Basketry, pottery, embroidery, crafts, crowns, saddlery, tannery, saddles are made and various jobs in palm and lechuguilla.

Location

It is located in the southwestern part of Tamaulipas and `belongs to the subregion of Tula num 5, has a territorial extension of 3,062.33 square kilometers that represents the 3.33 percent of the total State. It adjoins to the north with the municipalities of Bustamante, Palmillas, and Jaumave; to the south and west with the state of San Luis Potosí; and to the east with the municipalities of Jaumave and Ocampo.

Its municipal head is located at 22º 59 'north latitude and 99º 43' west longitude, at an altitude of 1173 meters above sea level It is composed of 102 localities distributed in 8 micro regions, of which the most important are: Tula (municipal seat) Lázaro Cárdenas, Mamaleón, La Tapona, Miguel Hidalgo, Magdaleno Castle, Santa Ana de Nahola, Cienegullilla Congregation and Colonia Agraria Cruces. In the municipal head there are 17 neighborhoods highlighting among the oldest the Devisadero, Las Piedras, El Jicote and La Pila.

Hydrography

Its hydrographic resources are the Tula River, which has a closed basin. It is born at 2,500 meters above sea level and at 16 kilometers northeast of the municipal seat, originally it was known as the Barbolla stream, it receives on its route several tributaries of the Algodonal and El Salado streams; there is also the El Verdito River.

Weather

The predominant climate in the central and eastern zones is semi-warm, steppe in the west and south of the dry steppe in the central portion, the maximum temperatures oscillate between 42º C and 43º C and the minimum between 4ºC and 0ºC, the Rainfall regime is the main factor that determines climate changes, the minimum rainfall occurs in the center, with an average of 400 millimeters per year increasing in the west, north and east between 500 and 700 millimeters reaching the maximum value in the center and east where the Sierra Madre Oriental is located, with an average of 700 to 1,000 millimeters per year. Counting on an average temperature of 18ºC.

Orography

The most important mountain ranges are: those of Tula, Hierbabuena, Lagunilla, Cinco Palos and Nahola.

Classification and land use

There are different types of groups, such as reddish-brown and forest yellow-colored arbutiforms; they are represented in elevated areas ranging from 800 to 1,000 meters in height; the gray chernosem with a high concentration of calcium salts, which requires little water, the Chestnut of dark color and useful for agriculture and livestock and, finally, Sierosem, dark and very useful to agriculture.

Flora and fauna

Due to its climatic and relief characteristics, most of them are mezquitales, which reach an approximate height of 3.5 meters and thorny thickets of low height and as characteristic of the dry climate regions, the cactus abound, such as the biznaga, pitayo, jacubes, nopales, lechuguilla and low grasses; In the highest part of the Sierra Madre Oriental, pine and oak trees abound. There are animals such as coyote, deer, quail, rabbit, hare, roadrunner and white-winged pigeon among others.

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