It was the year of 1572 when the town of Santillana, known today as Abasolo, was founded.
Santillana emerged in the late period of the colonizing plan undertaken by Don José de Escandón to give life to the colony of Nuevo Santander, today Tamaulipas.
In contrast to other villas for whose installation the most elementary supports were procured, Santillana was created spontaneously and in an improvised manner.
The 18 families that populated Santillana used their few means to get ahead and showed courage by facing, without enough weapons or experience in combat, the danger represented by the constant harassment of the indigenous tribes that ravaged that region.
Defying the danger and based on sacrifices, they moved their community forward, in such a way that in 1828 was elevated to the rank of municipal head with the name of Abasolo.
Today, Abasolo emerges in the center of the entity with vigorous momentum. It is a prosperous agricultural municipality with high expectations of progress.
There one struggles with talent and tenacity to face the challenges imposed by modernity and consolidate the path that future generations have to transfer.
This monograph exposes the incessant struggle that the Abasolo Inhabitants have sustained to get ahead.
It is reported that its territorial characteristics; its basic infrastructure, economic, social and cultural profiles, and describes the remarkable impulse that the municipality of Abasolo has received with the works and investments of the state government, committed to the task of incorporating Tamaulipas municipalities into the vanguard of national progress.
In the middle of the XVIII century, in the year of 1748, Don José de Escandón and Helguera arrived in the territory that today constitutes the State of Tamaulipas, to colonize it with the name of Nuevo Santander. For it he founded towns to which he denominated Villas, mísmas that with the step of the time they would transform into cities and municipal headers.
In the span of four years, his colonizing work spread throughout the territory, leaving human settlements that gradually progressed, such as the villages of Aguayo, (Ciudad Victoria), Santander (Jiménez), Soto la Marina, Güemes, Llera, Padilla. , Hoyos (Hidalgo), etc.
When these towns grew and prospered, the town of Santillana, the primitive origin of what is now Abasolo, did not appear on the historical stage.
Background of the Foundation
The 26 of December of 1752 was founded the town of Santillana, on the banks of a stream, at a point equidistant between the town of Santander and Soto la Marina.
Founded under the invocation of Our Lady of the Rosary of Santillana, it was called Santillana to honor Don Antonio de Mendoza, first Viceroy of New Spain and descendant of the famous Marquis of Santillana.
The nascent village was populated with 18 families - 73 people - from Santander, having as captain - political and military command - Don Tomás Conde.
The November 13 of 1779 relocated to the Villa to the site it currently occupies.
The year of 1828, the congress of the state issued a decree by which the town of Santillana changed its name. He was called Abasolo, to honor the famous insurgent hero, Don Mariano Abasolo.
The foundation of Villa de Santillana was not included in the list of foundations designed by Don José de Escandón, but it was necessary for reasons of security and commercial convenience; the historian Alejandro Prieto described the following:
"The residents of the villages of Aguayo, Hoyos and Santander had to make constant trips from Soto la Marina, both to provide themselves with the necessary salt at their expense and trade, as well as to drive some skins and fat aboard to the pier of the Marina River. in a small schooner destined by Escandón to trade between this town and the port of Veracruz.
The neighbors who came to the port of the Marina with their shortcuts constantly suffered, between Santander and the port, the attacks of the Indians, who, devastated in the mountains of central Tamaulipa, did not waste the opportunity to make their skirmishes against passers-by, who had that travel gathered in a large number, prevented and armed, to defend themselves.
Faced with such circumstances of insecurity, they suggested to Don José de Escandón the idea of establishing a new town between the towns of Santander and Soto la Marina, to force the Indians to leave this part of the territory and thus cease their continuous assaults against the travelers.
A group of neighbors from the town of Santander offered to Escandón to go to establish a site that they considered advantageous for the new town. Escandón agreed to give the petitioners the possession of the land indicated and extended to one of them, called Don Tomás Conde, the appointment of captain, taking charge of the administration of the new village.
And 26 November 1752, was founded with the name of Our Lady of Santillana, near a stream.
They were 18 families that counted 73 people, their first settlers.
They did not receive any support for their transfer. Nor was a salary from the Royal Treasury assigned to Captain Tomás Conde, nor did he have a picket line for his defense, so they had to defend themselves against the Indians, with few weapons and no experience in their management.
In addition to these disadvantages, in Santillana a priest was not designated for the religious administration of the neighborhood, of which the Franciscan father of the town of Santander was in charge, who went in irregular form.
Less than half a league from Santillana, a congregation of Indians was formed at the foot of the Cerrito del Aire. These formed the tribe called "inapanames", which suffered from lack of support described above: it was not declared mission, nor any priest was responsible for his administration, having remained so for more than five years, during which Captain Count helped them when he could with some meat and corn, in exchange for working in the formation and cultivation of small jobs.
Around this same time another ranchería of Indians was formed, about a league from the town, on the bank of the purification, towards the south side. In her they had congregated around indigenous 400, among which there were Indians of caste, matucanes, raisins, inapanames, icopolos and comecamotes, that entered and left the town of Santillana.
Gradually, this indigenous community was leaving their wandering life, attracted by the good treatment and the help provided by Captain Conde, who had indicated several plots of land for their crops and in the absence of a missionary father to take care of the direction and care, he attended to the induction of the Indians into social life, making them understand the advantages of living in order and community.
Captain Conde planned the excavation of a ditch from the stream that passes through Santillana, in order to irrigate the land planted. The work was carried out with determination and since the desired result was not obtained, the project was discarded.
The neighbors of Santillana, during the dry months of the year when the salt flats of the coastal lagoons were about to be harvested, undertook the hauling of salt with short shortcuts that for this purpose they had cuttings, and formed their deposits in this town where they were interned for the towns of Aguayo, Hoyos or Linares; using this resource in the years of bad harvest, to provide a few harvests in these villages, where the abundant irrigation of the work made that even in times of little rain were not lost loas seeding; as often happened in other villas and missions.
In the stream that passes through Santillana and whose source is located in the eyes of water of Santander, there are several kinds of fish and turtles, whose resources were used by the neediest neighbors for food and commerce. In the suburbs of Santillana, there are mountains where wood is found for the construction of jacales and other materials for masonry works.
This village, in terms of its population and wealth, remained stationary in the early years of its establishment, and in 1757 - according to statistics collected by Don José de Cuervo, inspector general of the colony of Nuevo Santander -, he had 473 inhabitants in their demarcation, between Spaniards and natives; to his horses and cattle cattle amounted to one thousand 700 heads and the smaller cattle to four thousand 250. "
So far the description that Santillana wrote historian Alejandro Prieto.
When Jose Cuervo Store raised the statistics in 1757, the town of Santillana was, in comparison with others, the least populated, since it had 73 inhabitants, while Aguayo reached 908 inhabitants; Soto la Marina, 278; Santander, 452; Padilla, 381; Güemes, 393; Casas was not yet founded; Real de Borbón (Villana): 520; Llera: 279 and Hoyo (Hidalgo): 546 inhabitants.
Still in 1873, Santillana - which by then was called Abasolo -, was still the village with the least population, since it had 585 inhabitants, while Aguayo arrived 7,764; Jiménez: 2,628; Soto la Marina: 3,165; Padilla: 1,084; Güemes: 2,012; Hidalgo: 3,607; Llera: 2,424, etc.
However, Abasolo progresses with agriculture and currently has more inhabitants than some of the peoples mentioned above, as well as a more solid and growing economy.
In 1995, according to the INEGI, Abasolo had 14,101 inhabitants; Jiménez: 8,947; Padilla: 14,426, Villagrán: 7,587; Güemes: 16012, etc.
The demographic increase in Abasolo supports an ascending rhythm, propitiated by the arrival of families attracted by property, since it has fertile lands for agriculture and abundant water resources and taken advantage of by modern irrigation techniques.
In urban planning, it has an advanced infrastructure. Only in terms of drainage has 6 systems, against other municipalities that only have this service in their municipal capitals.
Santillana, today Abasolo, had a modest origin and a slow evolution. In 1997, the effort and unity of its inhabitants have placed the municipality in a vanguard in the progress of the entity.
Chronology of Historical Facts
- 1752 26 of December, foundation of the village of Santander.
- 1779 13 November, renunciation of the population.
- 1828 Acquires the name of Abasolo.
Among the architectural monuments is the parish of Nuestra Señora del Rosario, built in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; the old building of the municipal presidency, erected in the 18th century.
Regarding those of historical character are those of Miguel Hidalgo, Benito Juárez and Mariano Abasolo, in the main square.
The December 26 festivities are held to commemorate the founding of Santillana, today Abasolo.
The municipality of Abasolo is located in the central portion of the State of Tamaulipas, on the hydrological basin of the Soto la Marina river. It borders to the north with the municipalities of Cruillas and San Fernando; to the south with those of Casas and Soto la Marina; to the east with Soto la Marina and to the west with Jiménez.
It has a territorial extension of 1,960.46 square kilometers, which represents 2.24% of the total area of the entity.
It is made up of 84 localities, of which the most important are: Abasolo (municipal seat), Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolás Bravo, Ignacio Allende, Adolfo López Mateos, Nuevo Dolores, Guía del Porvenir, José María Morelos and Pavón and Las Delicias.
The municipal head: Abasolo is located at 24 ° 03 "of north latitude and 98 ° 22" of west longitude, at an altitude of 70 meters above sea level.
The municipality is located within the hydrological region #25, where it stands out for the immense current of the Soto la Marina river, from which a series of channels and drains are derived that constitute the #86 irrigation district. Account, also with the San Manuel river.
Within the most important tributaries of the Soto la Marina river are the Cometa and Las Conchitas streams; Towards the northern portion there is a group of almost endless and less abundant rivers, such as Cerillos, Panol; La Perlita and La Lajilla, which join the San José River, which crosses part of the central region in an easterly direction, towards the Gulf of Mexico.
The municipality presents two types of climate. In the northern portion, which comprises the largest area, the climate is less dry in the steppes, warm; its average annual temperature is higher than the 22 degrees, with rainfall in summer, extreme. To the south, the climate shows higher temperatures. The rain regime occurs during the summer, with a rainfall of 100 cubic millimeters per year, in the month of July. The winds blow from the south.
The flat and semi-plane relief that occurs in the municipality has been a consequence of natural phenomena, such as the orogeny that gives rise to the geological structure and the influence of the rivers that shape much of the area within the municipality.
Classification and use of the Land
The municipal territory has two types of soils. The largest extension, in the central and northern portion, is xeresol, a poor soil not suitable for agriculture. In the south and southeast portion the soil is rendzina, qualified with high aptitude for agricultural use.
Flora and Fauna
It predominates in the territory the vegetation of thorn scrub and subinermes; The deciduous and ebbro - siculifolia forests are also present.
As for the fauna, the most common wild species are the white-tailed deer, wild boar, wild turkey, quail-dove white wing, pijije duck, rabbit and coyote.Suggest Edition