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The first human settlements in Tamaulipas date back to 12.000 BC, according to archaeological remains found in what is called the "Diablo Complex" in reference to a set of rock shelters located in the Devil's Canyon and containing primitive cave paintings.

The northern plains and the center of the territory were inhabited by nomadic tribes dedicated to hunting, gathering and fishing; These tribes were known by the Mexica as Chichimecas. To the south, different tribes settled in the Sierra Madre, the Sierra de Tamaulipas and in the Huasteca; among which were the olives, the aretines and the Huastecos.

The Huasteca culture was the largest and most important in Tamaulipas but during the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, successive waves of nomads from the north made them retreat to the Pánuco River to such an extent that when the Spanish conquerors arrived, they practically did not occupy their territory.

The first Spaniards to explore the Tamaulipas territory were those who were part of the expedition sent by the Governor of Jamaica, Francisco Garay, under the command of Alonso Álvarez de Pineda, who in 1518 traveled the coasts from north to south, from Florida to Veracruz. , which they named Amichel and later Costas del Seno Mexicano. A second Garay expedition failed in the attempt to conquer the region due to the warlike action of the indigenous residents.

In 1522 Hernán Cortés conquered the Huasteca and southern Tamaulipas territory became part of the province of Pánuco. In 1544 fray Andrés de Olmos founded the first mission with the name of Purísima Concepción de Tamaholipas and in 1554 was founded Tampico, the first permanent Spanish settlement in the area.

The spiritual and political conquest of the Costa del Seno Mexicano was not completed until the XNUMXth century.

On September 3, 1746, the Viceroy of New Spain founded the Colonia de Nuevo Santander and appointed Colonel José de Escandón as Governor; who began the colonization of the territory in the year 1748.

In 1786, following the Bourbon reforms, the Royal Ordinance of Intendencias was issued by King Carlos III, with which the Viceroyalty of New Spain was administratively divided in 12 Intendencias; thus creating the Intendance of San Luis Potosí, of which the province of Nuevo Santander became a part.

On July 7, 1821, the Province of Nuevo Santander, solemnly swore the independence of Mexico in Villa de Aguayo, then capital of the province.

On January 31, 1824, upon issuance of the Constitutive Act of the Mexican Federation, the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas was created by decree of the Constituent Chamber of the Nation.

On July 7, 1824, the first Congress was installed and on May 6, 1825, the first Political Constitution of the State of Tamaulipas was issued in Ciudad Victoria.

Source: Offices of the Governor, Civic Development Office

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