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Victoria

Introduction

During the second campaign of the Spanish colonization plan, Ciudad Victoria was founded the 6 of October of 1750 by the Count of Sierra Gorda Don José de Escandón and Helguera, under the name of Villa de Santa María de Aguayo.

After having been established the powers of the State in other populations, the 20 of April of 1825 the Villa de Aguayo was elevated to the category of Capital of the State, and in honor of the first President of Mexico, Don Guadalupe Victoria, was called City Victory.

Chronology of historical events

  • 1750 The 6 of October, the Villa is founded with the name of Santa María de Aguayo, in the place called Tamatán.
  • 1757 The May 12, Jose Cuervo store comes to visit the foundation and review the 31 of the same month.
  • 1769 By order of the Viceroy, the formal distribution of the rustic lands was made in Nuevo Santander.
  • 1811 March's 12, Colonel Joaquin Arredondo occupies the Villa de Aguayo that was in the hands of the insurgents.
  • 1821 Aguayo City Council and General Felipe de la Garza seized the 14 in July, from the Villa for the expedition of the Iguala Plan.
  • 1839 The May 3 falls Ciudad Victoria held by President Anastacio Bustamante
  • 1846 Ciudad Victoria is occupied, the December 25 by troops from the United States of America.
  • 1854 Licentiate Juan José de la Garza seconded, the 7 of July, in the current State Capital, the Plan of Ayutla and in September of that same year he was made head of the garrison, Captain Don Ignacio Zaragoza.
  • 1861 Appointed by the Governor of Tamaulipas, General Santiago Vidaurri, General Ignacio Commonfort arrives in Ciudad Victoria in December.
  • 1865 The April 4, General Don Pedro José Méndez places a spot on the imperialist colonel Baldera, who capitulated in September. D'Orlano reoccupied her.
  • 1913 The revolutionaries attack Ciudad Victoria under Colonel Jesús Agustín Castro, the 21 in April. These forces were the first to rise up against the government of Victoriano Huerta, shortly after the combats of the citadel and the assassination of President Francisco I. Madero.
  • 1913 Between 16 and 18 in November, take the city by constitutional forces.
  • 1918 General Don Eugenio Lopez, of the forces of General Caballero, ignored Carranza for believing that it was intended to make fraud in the elections and for the death of General Emilio P. Nafarrete; this happened the April 18.
  • 1920 December 13 died Bishop Eduardo Sánchez Camacho, excommunicated from 1869 for having denied the tradition of the Virgin of Guadalupe.
  • 1924 General César López de Lara, Governor of the State, leaves his post on December 18, in rebellion against President General Álvaro Obregón.

Illustrious people

  • Lauro Aguirre. The year of 1904 was received as a teacher, after having sustained a brilliant professional exam. He was a teacher in the preparatory and normal schools of the State. Appointed Director General of Public Instruction in Tamaulipas, he established the first outdoor school in Ciudad Victoria.
  • Oscar Álvarez Caballero. Educator and teacher leader (1915)
  • Praxedis Balboa Gojón. Lawyer and politician. Governor of Tamaulipas from 1963 to 1969. (1890-1990)
  • Matías Sabás Canales Márquez. Educator (1875-1933)
  • Estefania Castañeda Núñez de Cáceres. In 1896, sponsored by Governor Guadalupe Mainero, he founded in the capital of Tamaulipas, a model school for kindergartners following the Froobelian method, plotting the children's game as the basis of the system, this being the first institution of its kind not only in State and Country, but throughout Latin America. The name used for it was maternal school.
  • José Antonio Fernández de Córdoba. Political and military.
  • Alfredo E. Gochicoa. Doctor and professor (1882-1964)
  • Cipriano Guerrero. Politician and constituent of the State in 1857.
  • Jacobo Martínez González. (1875-1963)
  • Emilio Martínez Manaoutou. Physician and politician, he was Secretary of Health and Assistance, and Governor of the State of 1982 to 1987; and Secretary of the Presidency of the Republic from 1964 to 1970. (1919-)
  • Emilio Portes Gil. Professor graduated from the Normal School for Teachers of the capital of the State. He obtained the title of lawyer in the Free School of Law. Triumphant Mexican Revolution, said movement used the professional services of Mr. Portes Gil, calling him to perform a position in the Court of Military Justice. For the year of 1918 he was appointed General Secretary of Government in Tamaulipas, and from that place he began to prepare the land where he would later develop his political activities. For his sagacity and clear intelligence, he was appointed consultant lawyer of the Ministry of the Interior and also of the National Railroads of Mexico. In the Legislative Chamber of the Union he occupied a site representing one of the electoral districts of Tamaulipas, and because of his great prestige, he is named President of the Cooperativist Party.
  • Fidencio Trejo Flores. He excelled in the State Literary Institute. As a teacher, he provided professional services; He studied jurisprudence which ended in the year of 1913 in the first school of this kind that worked in the State of Tamaulipas.
  • Juan Fidel Zorrilla Zorrilla. Lawyer and historian (1920-1994)

Historical monuments

In the Alameda Paseo Pedro José Méndez, there is the monument to the Niños Héroes and the monument to the mother; On one side of it and the peasant's house, there is a monument to Emiliano Zapata. In Plaza Hidalgo, there was a monument in honor of José Bernardo Maximiliano Gutiérrez de Lara; and in the Plaza Juárez at the entrance to the State Government Palace are the statues of Benito Juárez and Venustiano Carranza.

Architectural monuments

Municipal Palace, imposing building that was headquarters of the Government of the State during the first half of the present century, its construction began at the end of the XIX century and it was concluded in the first decade of the XX. From 1950, it houses the municipal powers of Victoria; The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Guadalupe, building built during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, its plant has the shape of a Latin cross, finished building in 1927.

Railroad terminal dating from the beginning of the century. In front of the Railway Station, in the Plaza de los Héroes, stands a column in honor of the heroes, on the top of it is a statue of Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos y Pavón, Ignacio Allende, Mariano Matamoros , Warrior; in the Portes Gil highway, which joins the roads Mexico and Monterrey, there are monuments to Guadalupe Victoria, in the Plaza de la República; to Doña María Brígida, Consuelo Estefanía Castañeda Núñez, in the Garden of the Master; Adolfo López Mateos, on Calzada Ruiz Cortinez; Jesús García Corona, at the Ferrocarrilero Casino; and in the school of his name. Professor Lauro Aguirre, at the Technological School of Agriculture Number 167; and Pedro José Méndez at the intersection of the streets of Francisco I. Madero and Carrera Torres.

The building of the ExHacienda de Tamatán, built at the end of the 19th century, now houses the Agricultural Technology School; the old Cathedral of Our Lady of Refuge built between 1880-1920; the church of San Isidro; the building of the offices of Banco de Credito Rural (BANRURAL), the Casa del Arte, built at the beginning of the 20th century, initially the Literary Scientific Institute functioned there, later the facilities were occupied by the Normal and Preparatory School and in 1962 it became at the headquarters of the Tamaulipeco Institute of Fine Arts; the former headquarters of the School of Arts and Crafts, built in 1828, currently in the Tamaulipan Institute of Training for Employment (ITACE).

Artworks

Paintings In the Municipal Presidency, there is the mural entitled Alegoría de Tamaulipas en el Tiempo, Jorge Rosales Carrizales, murals in the Government Palace of Ramón García Zurita, with the name of Historia de Tamaulipas; Alfonso Javier Peña Flores, author of the mural that is in the lobby of the Juarez theater, referring to episodes of Tamaulipas; mural located in the cultural and sports center Adolfo Ruiz Cortínez, made in Venetian mosaic by Issac David Celestino.

Literature, Music and Poetry Of the literary genre the works of Matías Canales Medina, entitled the "Area of ​​Nueces and Villas del Norte"; Magdalena Cárdenas, with the "Ciudad Alegre y Hospitalaria (semblance of Ciudad Victoria)"; Vidal Efrén Covián Martínez, with numerous works, including: "El Mal País", "Operation Matamoros", "My Poems", "Emiio Portes Gil, Governor of the Tamaulipas Huertista", "Alberto Carrera Torres, idealist of the Revolution "," Brief history of Ciudad Victoria "; Raúl García García with "Tamaulipas in the life of Mexico" and "The occurrences of Don Arnulfo"; Juan Guerrero Villarreal, his works entitled "Civic Testimonies", "Opinions", "Texts of a Brief Political Argument", "History was of the earth and my race"; Alejandro Rosales Lugo, with "Bicicleta de Poesías" and "Mamaleón"; and Altair Tejeda de Taméz, of which we mention some of his poetry books: "Thirty Minutes", "Aeroama", "Fuensanta" and "Simple Words and Stories", "The Dog Complexed", "The Cemetery of Words" , with plays such as: "Canasta", "Autumn dies in Primavera", "El principito (adaptation)", "Los fantasmas del espejo", and so on.

In the music genre Francisco Flores Sánchez, composer of more than 30 songs, among them Costeñitas, Huasteca Tamaulipeca and the Anthem to Pedro José Méndez.

Popular parties

During the month of October every year the agricultural, livestock, industrial and artisan exhibition of the State is celebrated; during the development of the same they are celebrated charreadas in the linen cloth; Typical dances and national and international artists perform at the Teatro del Pueblo.

The December 12 takes place, in the Sanctuary the festivities in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe, the celebration includes dances of matachines, popular verbena and pyrotechnic games.

Foods

Chunks of corn stuffed with shredded meat, nopales and egg; quesadillas

Traditional costumes

The tamaraipeca.

Handicrafts

Henequen and palm products are produced, furniture (dining rooms, living rooms, bedrooms) and decorative items.

Location

The Municipality of Victoria is located between the 23º44'06 "of north latitude and the 99º07'51" of west longitude; at an average altitude of 321 meters above sea level; It belongs to the subregion of the same name and is located in the central region of the State, on the hydrological basin of the Purificación River and between the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental.

Its borders are: to the North with the Municipality of Güémez; to the South with that of Llera, to the East with that of Houses and to the West with the Municipality of Jaumave. Its territorial extension is 1538.25 square kilometers, which represents the 2.04 percent of the territory of the entity. The municipality has 187 localities, of which they stand out for their importance: Cd. Victoria municipal seat, Alliance of Knights, High Knights, Benito Juarez, The Mission, Santa Librada, La Libertad, Lázaro Cárdenas, Aquiles Serdán, El Fuerte Portes Gil, Laborcitas, Loma Alta, Caballeros Congregation, Manuel Ávila Camacho and Tierra Nueva, etc.

Hydrography

The hydrological resources are composed of numerous runoffs from the Sierra Madre Oriental.

In the middle portion is located the Santa Ana river or Caballeros river and the San Felipe, La Presa, Aquiles Serdán and Santa María streams.

The urban area of ​​the municipal capital is crossed by the San Marcos River and to the south the streams Juan Capitán, Ojo Caliente and El Sauz.

Weather

Due mainly to its relief, in the mountainous region the Municipality presents / displays two types of climates, the climate is (a) cwº (w) (e) according to Koppen-E Garci'a and its characteristics are: semicálido with average annual temperature superior to the 18ºC , summer rainfall regime and extreme, with thermal oscillation between 7ºC and 14ºC.

In the inclined plane the climate is BSI (h ') w' (e), that is to say the least dry of the steppe, very warm, with temperatures ranging from 2ºC to 40ºC. Rain regime in summer and extreme.

Orography

The municipality has two types of relief: in the west and southeast, the surface is abrupt, reaching altitudes of up to 1,800 meters above sea level, caused by the Sierra Madre Oriental, which lies to the west and south of the municipality. The relief towards the northeast is an inclined plane with the same address, occupying an 45% of the territory, where almost all of the human settlements are located.

Classification and land use

The Municipality presents, in a high part, calcaric soil and in the inclined plane it is chernozem, with high aptitude for agricultural use. With regard to land tenure; 45,144 hectares correspond to the ejidal regime, distributed in 42 ejidos and 118,264 hectares to the small property.

Flora and fauna

In the highest part of the Municipality there is the deciduous forest and scleracicifolia; on the slopes, thickets subinermes and on the inclined plane, thorn scrub. Pine, oak and tropical trees are the main species exploited.

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