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Palmillas

Introduction

The oldest inhabitants of the Municipality of Palmillas were the pames, tribes descendants of the Mayans, who inhabited the southwest of the town, where they found vestiges of their rooms and the way of life that they had, noticing a cultural development they knew and used the fire, the utensils were of clay, weapons such as the arrow and the sling, which suggests that these tribes were descendants of the Huaxtecs of the Tamesí basin, Pánuco region, who managed to extend to these lands.

The foundation of the mission of Palmillas was verified in 1627; by orders of King Philip IV, Colonel Martin de Zavala proceeded to pacify the tribes in the Mexican Seno, joining these activities fray Juan Bautista Mollinedo, thus founding the mission of Palmillas, also known as Real de Palmillas.

In 1745, after repopulating with families from Guadalcazar, San Luis Potosí, it became a town, with Captain Francisco de Gaona as the maximum authority, who made the traces to later start the construction of the church and the building destined for seminary. Later, in 1756, the count of Revillagigedo, Viceroy of New Spain, verified the colonization of Tamaulipas, with Colonel José de Escandón carrying out the repopulation of Palmillas for the third time.

At the end of the construction of the church, in 1777, religious activity begins in charge of Franciscan friars, beginning the education of children, on that date the building for the seminar, the house for functions of the council is finished and in addition cobbled streets were made.

After the Independence of the Country, during the Reformation the name of Villa de Palmillas de Ocampo was imposed, and a weekly newspaper called El Atom was published, with the first issue appearing in the 4 of August of 1867.

During the Reformation, the town seconded the government of Benito Juárez participating in battles against the French, for which Juarez appoints captain of cavalry to Pablo Luna Ramos, original of the town.

In 1907, the government of Porfirio Díaz contributes to the culture of the town by donating wind musical instruments to the village, forming a group or musical band composed of young 23, all of them from Palmillas, who cooperated with the enthusiasm and culture of the people presenting twice a week in the Plaza and also participating in serenades. At that time the town had hardware stores, a bank, a drugstore and several grocery stores; usually families made soap, lime and spun wool to make their suits. All this disappears with the armed movement of 1910, headed by Francisco I. Madero, in which most of the inhabitants participated under the orders of the General and Professor Alberto Carrera Torres - then president of the town - as General Brigadier; Macario Castro as Major; Ladislao Martinez as a second lieutenant and the rest as revolutionary soldiers.

Chronology of historical events

  • 1627 Foundation of the mission of Palmillas
  • 1745 It happens to be a villa; the construction of the church and seminary began.
  • 1756 Palmilla repopulation is done for the third time.
  • 1777 The construction of the church is concluded and religious activity begins.
  • 1867 Edition of a weekly newspaper called El Atom, with the first issue appearing on August's 4.

Illustrious people

  • Francisco estrada (1835-1917) Revolutionary military.
  • Miguel Ángel Ferral Lawyer and writer.
  • Miguel Luna Rodríguez professor, geographer and graphologist
  • Emilio Rodríguez Álvarez. (1905-)

Historical monuments

Bust of Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, located in the main square; bust of General Julián Villanueva located in the Llano de Azúa ejido.

Architectural monuments

Church of Our Lady of the Snows, of the XVIII century; House of the Seminary, also of the XVIII century.

Artworks

Retablo of carved wood, designed in 1746.

Refractory paints

Image of Our Lady of the Snows, painted by Peralta F. in 1746, by anonymous painters the Santo Cristo en el Purgatorio, by 1755, and the Virgin of Guadalupe, by 1761.

Popular parties

The August 5 festivities are held in honor of Our Lady of the Snows, patron of the town. Groups of dancers participate in it, they start the 4 day in the afternoon and finish the 6 also in the afternoon. The 3 of May the festivities to the Santa Cruz take place, participate groups of dancers. The 2 day starts in the afternoon and the 4 ends in the afternoon.

This is a party that dates back to the second half of the 18th century, when the population was divided into two parts: the town of Spaniards and the Indian mission (ramparts and pames) dividing both by the church dedicated to Our Lady of the Snows. The party consists in venerating the two crosses of the town: the one of the proper town and the one of the Indians (or "of palm hearts"); For this, both crosses have their respective mayordomies, which dress, care and dance, with dance and walking on horseback. Finally they are placed in their respective portion of the town, celebrated with rocketry.

In May 15 the festival is celebrated in honor of San Isidro Labrador in Llano de Azúa. It is a celebration to the patron saint of the farmers, it is common that it is reproduced in other places of the region, it is venerated with prayers and chants, besides dances of on foot and horseback; He also usually walks to the saint.

Fiesta in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe, December 12 is celebrated. Start the 11 day in the afternoon to finish at sunset on the 13 day. As in the previous ones, groups of dancers participate.

legends

It is said that the church bell was fused in what is now the back of health center C; For this, the most affluent people gathered, who threw their gold jewelery to the perol in order to make this piece as good as possible. His sound was unique, very fine given the quality of his material; unfortunately the piece was damaged at the time of the revolution.

Traditions and customs

There are two cross-shaped timbers on the east and west sides of the village; that explains that at the time of the colony, it was divided into two parts, in such a way that the colonists paid homage to the cross that is located on the east side and the pames, which is located on the west side.

Currently, traditional festivals are held with the organization of mayordomos, which are renewed every two or three years. They are volunteers who carry out activities to raise funds, so that the parties are lucid and there are fireworks. The clothes worn by the dancers are made up of trousers and a shirt with a colored band and a crown adorned with bright colors. In the case of the horse dance, wooden horses are used that wear a blanket adorned with mirrors and colored scarves; the frameworks, generally, are of reed or soft wood; They use wooden machetes. These festivities have been shrinking in their colors, as well as in the mood of the participants, probably because most of the young people migrate to other cities in search of employment and that is why only some elderly people and children are the ones participate, so to give more color to the festivities is necessary to bring groups from nearby municipalities.

Foods

Nopales, cactus heart, mole, pork roast, kid's barbecue, pork head tamales, shells.

Confectionery

Pumpkin, chilacayote, pepitorias, canned sotol and maguey.

Drinks

Maguey aguamiel, atole of sunflower seeds, corn gruel.

Traditional costumes

In the man we use shorts of blanket and shirt of the same material, with a wool band that they make themselves. Women usually wear petticoats, plain blouses without neck, long sleeves or three quarters, bulging and rebozo. Both use huaraches.

Location

The municipal seat is located in the Villa de Palmillas located at 23º18 'north latitude and 99º32' west longitude, at an altitude of 1293 meters above sea level. The Municipality is located in the southwestern part of the State and belongs to the subregion Tula Num. 5 and limits to the North and East with the Municipality of Jaumave; to the South with those of Jaumave and Tula and to the West with that of Bustamante.

Its territorial extension is 484.71 square kilometers, which represents the 0.95 percent of the total of the State. It is integrated by 22 localities, of which the most important are: Palmillas, Ejido Palmillas, Llano de Azúa, San Vicente and 6 de Abril.

Hydrography

There are surface hydrological resources such as the San Diego and Monte Redondo streams, whose flows are only recorded during the rainy season. There are three springs that are used for housework.

The first Pedro Díaz, located at 11 kilometers from the municipal seat; the second, El Sauz, is located on a small property and at a distance of 10 kilometers from the head, and finally the Enramadas, which is located at 7 Km. of the municipal road.

Weather

The predominant climate type is semi-warm steppe, with rainfall during the period from July to September and the hottest months are from May to August. The average annual temperatures are from 21ºC to 23ºC, with minimum temperatures of 4ºC and maximum of 42ºC. Its annual average rainfall is between 500 and 700 cubic millimeters and the direction of the winds is usually southwest in summer and north in winter.

Orography

Two characteristic relief types are presented, the 92 percent of the surface is uneven and the rest is flat.

Classification and land use

In the southwest part, the soils are xerosol and lithosol, mountainous and arid soils; in the rest of the municipality there are lithosol or xerosol soils. 7,251 hectares correspond to the ejidal regime, distributed in 5 ejidos, 69,216 hectares to the small property. The fundamental use of soil is agricultural.

Flora and fauna

In order to preserve and promote the production of own resources available to the region, a resource development unit was established by COPLAMAR, planting in some fodder nopal ejidos, maguey honey and forage and peach, as well as a nursery where timber pine, windbreaker or pine SP

There is a great variety of wildlife such as puma, wild cat, deer, turkey, coyote, etc.

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