Jaumave was the second town founded by the count of Sierra Gorda, José de Escandón, the 19 of May of 1744, being called on that date San Lorenzo de Jaumave. For its foundation, the mentioned count brought families from Guadalcázar, jurisdiction of San Luis Potosí. Following the customs of that time, after the act of foundation, a mass was officiated at the orders of the colonizer, and then the outline of the town limits was drawn, pointing to the lots and the streets; endowing the inhabitants with water from the spring that today is called Media del Pueblo.
There was also a land grant in common with the name of ejido, which covers a league beyond the town limits on all four sides; these lands were endowed with water that came from the springs called, today, the Huizaches.
Chronology of historical events
- 1617 Jaumave is populated by a group of Franciscan missionaries.
- 1620 The mission was attended by Fray Juan de Cárdenas.
- 1744 Foundation of the town of Jaumave by Don José de Escandón.
- 1866 The inhabitants of this town pressed the passage of the troops of the imperialist general Tomás Mejía.
- 1884 A telegraph office is installed for the first time in the town.
- 1909 A furious and devastating cyclone hit the region.
- Daniel S. Córdoba
- Manuel Galván
- Miguel Martínez Montero
- Gumercindo Montemayor
- Rafael Tejeda Puente (1882-1971) Teacher and pedagogue.
- Blas Uvalle González (1919-) Historian.
- Rómulo S. Vértiz
- Baudelio Villanueva Martínez (1898-1970) Doctor and professor.
- Aniceto Villanueva Martínez (1903-1973) Lawyer, the library of the Superior Court of Justice bears his name.
The most important, due to its antiquity and transcendence, is that of the Benemérito de las Américas, located next to Plaza Juárez, and in the center of this same recreational park, dedicated to the National Flag. In the Plaza Hidalgo there is a bust of Don Miguel Hidalgo and in another end dedicated to the Mother; In the courtyard of the municipal presidency, there is a bust dedicated to an illustrious Jaumavense, Professor Rafael Tejeda Puente.
The church of San Lorenzo, built in the mid-eighteenth century following a modest architectural pattern, based on lime and song.
In the kilometer 46 Victoria to Jaumave, small remains of 10 are located to 12 since janambre.
In the municipal seat, it is a tradition the annual celebration of the cultural day during the first fortnight of the month of December, in which artistic groups of diverse places of the state and the Republic are presented; during this week contests, dances, exhibitions and sporting events are developed, being characteristic the contest of carving of lechuguilla, that of confection; standing out of these celebrations the typical group of dancers of the place, who dance interminably in honor to the virgin of the small church of the place; They also organize coleaderas, horse races and buried goat.
The May 19 celebrates the repopulation of Jaumave, with cultural, sports and popular dance events.
It is said that there were two tribes (pames and pizones); the first established in what is now San Lorencito and the second in what is known as the Mission. These tribes, for reasons of supremacy, reached the agreement of founding a single town, by means of a signal of departure of each one of the places, which was the sunrise; at a certain date and in the place where they were to be found, there would be a single village that would be Jaumave. Another legend tells that when digging the foundations of the parish of San Lorenzo, a thick mesquite root was discovered in the shape of a cross, an event called The Miracle of the Christ of the Root, a symbol venerated at the time of the Colony.
One of the folkloric manifestations that has great roots in some rural communities of the municipality, is the dance of the Matlazincas and the caballitos, which play a good number of participants to the beat of music or are guitar and violin. In the first, the dancers wear a colorful wardrobe made of fabrics of various colors and have adorned the head with a crown of mirrors, bird feathers, bells and ribbons of various colors.
Literature, music and poetry
From the literary genre, the works of Rafael Tejeda entitled Jaumave in History, Jaumave and his Men, Honor a Jaumave and Lauro Aguirre, among others.
Kid in his blood, nopales with pipián, pumpkin flower, stewed chochas, jacubes and jerky.
Pumpkin, biznaga, chilacayote and stewed piloncillo.
Honey of maguey.
The traditional products typical of this region, are made of the fiber extracted from the lechuguilla, commonly called Ixtle, as reatas, handbags, backpacks, brooms and cables for various uses; There are also a variety of articles of this activity called jarcería, without missing the people who are dedicated to the production of comales and clay pots. In some ejidos the logging elaborate handicrafts of wood carving.
Jaumave, located in the Sierra Madre Oriental, has a territorial extension of 2,737.59 Km², which represents 3.33 percent of the total of the State; is formed largely by rural communities, which add up to a total of 46 localities, the main ones being: Jaumave (Municipal Head), Matías García, San Juanito, Ávila and Urbina, Magdaleno Aguilar, Padrón and Juárez, La Reforma and San Antonio .
The municipality is bordered on the north by Güemez, on the northeast by the State of Nuevo León and the municipality of Miquihuana, on the northwest by Victoria, on the south by Ocampo, on the southeast by Gómez Farías on the southwest with the one of Palmillas and east with Llera. The municipal head is located in the city of Jaumave, geographically located at 23º24' north latitude and 99º 24'de west longitude at a height of 735 mts. above sea level.
By virtue of being located in one of the most arid parts of the state, the municipality of Jaumave has several streams and rivers that are not permanent because only in rainy weather runs water, being its main current the Chihue river, Guayalejo and some streams and springs at the foot of the sierra.
In the Jaumave Valley, central part, the prevailing climate is the driest of the steppes, extreme warm with the presence of heat waves and in the semi-warm zones there is a steppe climate, not very dry. The average annual temperatures are from 21ºC to 23ºC and from 17ºC, in the northeast; the maximums are of 43ºC in the east and center; of 45ºC in the northeast and minimums of 4ºC to 0ºC. The pluvial precipitation is, greater in the east, where it reaches 1,200 mm. and only 500 mm in the northeast.
The municipality of Jaumave covers a large area of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Approximately 58.72% includes the injured area; the flat zones form in 7.70% of the municipality, leaving the remaining 33.58% to the semi-flat areas.
The injured part is located east of the municipality and the flat areas in the center of it, which are located in the valley.
The municipality of Jaumave contributes the largest amount of hectares, to the area known as the biosphere "El Cielo"
Classification and land use
In the municipality of Jaumave most of the surface without soil with acrylic bins, located in the east end, from north to south, and in the central part are the lithosols and xerosol. With regard to land use, it is eminently agricultural, followed by livestock and forestry.
Of the 2,260.20 km² of surface, the greater part is communal, included in ejidos, colonies and rancherías, leaving the minority to the small proprietors.
Flora and fauna
In the municipality, due to its climatological characteristics and relief, predominantly the mezquitales that reach an approximate height of 3.50 mts predominate. and low-altitude thorn bushes, and as it is peculiar to the dry climate, cacti such as the bisnaga, pitayos, jacubos, nopales, lechugilla and low pastures abound; In the highest part of the Sierra Madre Oriental there is abundant pine and oak, its fauna is wide and varied.Suggest Edition