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González

Introduction

What is now the municipality of González, dates from many years before the Spanish conquest, because in the southern part of the Tamaulipas mountain there are still vestiges of indigenous peoples, mainly in the Laureles, San Antonio and Los Frailes.

The Villa de San Juan Bautista de Horcasitas was founded on May 11 by Captain José Antonio de Oyervides. Later named Magiscatzin, being Municipal Headquarters until the twenties, since the 1749 of October of 14, by decree No. 1927, being Governor of the State Mr. Felipe Canales, the change was made from the City Council of Magiscatzin to González, which was originally a railway station, named for being in the lands of the Gonzalez Succession, owned by General Manuel González Aldama, owner of the Hacienda del Cojo.

The majority of the towns in Tamaulipas were founded by the colonizer Don José de Escandón between 1748 and 1755, reason why they have a very similar historical origin, since the chronicles of their important facts and their social evolution start from the same date.

In many of these towns located in the territorial belt of the north of our State; from Tula to Soto la Marina, considered by anthropologists and archaeologists as the dividing line between Aridoamerica and Mesoamerica, there are almost no vestiges of ancient cultures, because the few tribes that lived in these regions were nomads and their dwellings depended basically on the seasons climatological, collection and hunting. The scarce existence of maintenance resources did not allow them to settle definitively in specific places, for that reason in that Tamaulipeca area there are no important vestiges of pre-Cortesian cultures.

In the south zone of the State and mainly in what is considered Huasteca Tamaulipeca if there are numerous archaeological ruins of different and ancient times and that developed a certain degree of culture.

Among the municipalities that stand out the most in the location of archaeological sites is González, who due to different circumstances has the privilege of possessing within his territory historical roots related to the origin, foundation, name and shield of Tamaulipas.

This is because the geographical situation of the municipality favored these circumstances, since the Guayalejo or Tamesí River, an inexhaustible source of life in past epochs, gave rise to the settlement of numerous indigenous peoples; the exuberant vegetation and springs that surround the Bernal de Horcasitas was inhabited by the town of Tanchoy and numerous ranches.

In Arroyo del Cojo, from its source in the mountains to its mouth in the Tamesí River, there are vestiges, and Cues, in the Nogalar, in El Progreso, in La Misión, in El Mezquite, in La Concepción, in El Cojo, in El Guayabo, in Los Tanques, in El Caimán and near Carrizo and others.

The Sierra de Tamaulipas, exuberant and mysterious, still holds many surprises as the ruins of almost twenty archaeological sites are still waiting for some authority in the matter is concerned with them to investigate, study and define their origin and antiquity.

To all this we add the great colonial haciendas of the municipality, which has so much history, as the Cojo, Alamitos, Old Pretil, Cardiel and Tancasnque.

San Juan Bautista de Horcasitas, today Magiscatzin, that circumstance that we still do not know was the first and only population that the colonizer Don José de Escandón gave him the title of city.

In addition, here in our municipality is the ruins of the Tamaholipa, mission and convent, founded by Fray Andrés de Olmos in the year of 1544, at the foot of the mountains and on the banks of the Arroyo del Cojo.

This ancient indigenous town gave the name to the mountains and our state.

Tancasneque, ancient Huastec village and then Villa Tamaulipeca, where a Customs and fluvial port was installed from 1793 and later became a strategic site in the passage of the river into the interior of the republic during the French intervention.

In addition, our hill, the majestic, mysterious and unique in its eco-geographic genre, The Bernal de Horcasitas, which has been chosen and embodied as a symbol and emblem representative of our state in the Shield of Tamaulipas.

For all the above, we consider that despite the antiquity and historical ancestry of the seigniorial Tula, of the importance as seat of the government and first capital of the Jiménez province; of the importance of Tampico in its different social phases; González, although its young population, its municipality is generous in archaeological ruins, in colonial monuments, in historical facts, very important of the past, that connects it deeply with the origin, name and shield of our state, for that reason we highlight in our present edition of "Tamaholipas" Tamaulipas roots in the municipality of González.

Chronology of historical events

  • 1749 The 11 of May, the Villa de San Juan Bautista de Horcasitas was founded within what is now the municipality of González.
  • 1901 The February 19, the railroad station comes into operation.
  • 1915 The 1o. May, a group of Villa's forces of General Jose Rodarte tries to seize the station González.
  • 1922 The 22 of June, visit of the Governor of Tamaulipas General César López de Lara to carry out the delivery of land titles.
  • 1927 The 4 of October, the Congress of the State Decree the change of Municipal Heading of Magiscatzin to González.
  • 1928 The 1o. January, the first González City Council takes office.
  • 1949 The 21 of April, is inaugurated, by the President Miguel Alemán the bridge of Magiscatzin.
  • 1951 The 14 of February, visits to González the Duke Eduardo de Windsor, who resigned to the throne of the English Monarchy.
  • 1955 The September 19, hits the region Hilda cyclone.
  • 1966 The 10 of October, hits the cyclone Inés, causing multiple damage.
  • 1985 The November 20 opens its doors to the public the Museum of History and Archeology of the municipality of González.

Illustrious people

  • Alejandro Prieto Quintero. Historian and Politician. Governor of the State twice, from 1888 to 1896.

Architectural monuments

The Church of San Juan Bautista (only the bell tower remains standing).

Historical monuments

A monument to Don Benito Juárez, located in the main square.

Archaeological monuments

There are numerous vestiges of different historical epochs and different cultural roots, in San Antonio Rayón, Tancaxneque, Tanchoy, Cardiel, Tanjuco, Magiscatzin, the Refuge, the Cojo, the Mission, the Lajilla, the Escondida, San Juan del Vado, the Mines, Los Frailes, Torresilla and Laguna del Escribano.

Literature, music and poetry

From the literary genre, by Alejandro Prieto Quintero, entitled Legal Surveying History, Geography and Statistics of the State of Tamaulipas, El Río Tamesí and El Mante stream, among others.

Popular parties

The most significant popular celebration is the one that takes place the month of June of each year, date in which the foundation of González is celebrated.

Holy Week in San Antonio Rayón. It is a popular festival of devils without a religious ingredient, although possibly it once had it. The celebration takes place in the village, making an inn where food or liquor is invited; to finish "hanging" the devils of a great fig tree, to later be thrown into the Tamesí River. Many visitors from the State of San Luis Potosí attend this festival.

Location

The municipality is located in the southern portion of the State, with a territorial extension of 3,491.41 square kilometers, which represents 4.2 percent of the total area of ​​the State. It adjoins to the North with the municipality of Llera and Casas; to the South with the State of Veracruz; to the North with the municipalities of Aldama and Altamira and to the West with Xicotencatl and Mante.

Villa González, the Municipal Header, is located at 22º 48' latitude and at 99º 41'of west longitude, at an altitude of 56 meters above sea level. It is integrated by 30 localities, being the most important: Villa González (Municipal Head), Manuel Station, Poblado Graciano Sánchez, López Rayón and Francisco I. Madero.

Hydrography

The main hydrographic stream is the Río Guayalejo, in the west and in the south, but with the name of Río Tamesí, serving as the border with the State of Veracruz. There is a dam called Ramiro Caballero, with a useful capacity of 508 million cubic meters. There are also the so-called southern lagoons and intermittent streams such as El Cojo, San Vicente, El Comedor, Estero and El Verde. It also has the San Lorenzo dam and Venustiano Carranza.

Weather

The predominant climate is sub-humid, in which the sub-types of average humidity are grouped, being its precipitation in the driest month less than 60 millimeters; The annual thermal oscillation is extreme and to the north of the municipality there is a drop in precipitation, marking a dry warm steppe climate. The annual average temperature is of 25ºC, and the precipitation is of 850 millimeters.

Orography

The fertile land of Tamaulipas covers a large area of ​​the municipality of González, where there are steep slopes, where it deprives a very mild climate and a magnificent land for the exploitation of fruit trees. In the center of the plain rises, dominant and majestic, the hill of Bernal de Horcasitas of singular beauty and attractiveness for its geological rarity, with a height of 1,116 meters above sea level and that for its originality deserved to be stamped on the shield of Tamaulipas.

Classification and land use

In the northern area of ​​the municipality are the soils of rendzinas and regosols calcareous, in the southwestern area, bordering rivers and lagoons, dominate the fluvisols, whose horizon is saturated with water and its level of fiat is variable, may be susceptible to development of some crops that tolerate excess water; to the north of Ramiro Caballero Dam and of Lagunas del Sur, there are saline soils that recover their production level with a wash; in the rest of the municipality the pelic and crater vertisols predominate, of fine texture, clayey and heavy, cracking remarkably when drying and expanding when they are saturated, they present difficulties in their tillage, but with the suitable handling they are apt for a great variety of cultures for its fertility; susceptible to saline if excessive use of water is used. With regard to land tenure, the municipality has an area of ​​339,910 hectares distributed equally between ejidal regime and small property.

Flora and fauna

The flora should be considered divided into three zones, the influence by the Guayalejo river basin, where willows, guacima, sabino, orejon, blackberry, slug, wild guava, chijol and fruit trees predominate. In the region of the Sierra there are large forests of pine, oak, cedar, poplar, chapala arc, laurel, walnut, ash, cerón and anacua. In the central plain of the less fertile land, huizache, mesquite, transept, tena, ceniso, macahuita and pichihumo predominate.

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