Nuevo Laredo arises as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo between Mexico and the United States in February of 1848, ending the war between the two nations. In fact, the formal foundation of what we know today as Nuevo Laredo was the 15 of May of 1755 on the left bank of the Rio Grande. In 1767, when the authorities of the Viceroyalty of New Spain created private property in the Colonia del Nuevo Santander, today Tamaulipas, the Villa de Laredo is designated a territory that spans both banks of the Rio Grande. The urban area, or piece of the population, was also settled on both sides of the river.
Upon the exchange of ratifications of the peace treaty, the May 30 of 1848, Mexico and the United States establish a new dividing line. The new frontier divides the primitive Villa de San Agustín de Laredo in two and that is when the 15 of June of 1848, the governor of Tamaulipas, Francisco Vital Fernández, goes to Andrés Martínez, last mayor of San Agustín de Laredo elected in the left bank of the Rio Grande, making known the new dividing line, the mutilation of the Tamaulipas territory and the loss to Tamaulipas of the northern part of the Rio Grande of the Villa de Laredo. Governor Vital Fernandez said in his communication to Mayor Andres Martinez, that the primitive part of Laredo, south of the river, on the right bank and that we still belonged, would henceforth be called Nuevo Laredo.
The foundation of Nuevo Laredo was implicit or virtual, since it was not a formal foundation, since there are no documents, documents or documents of foundation, or at least they have not been located. The tradition tells that the 17 families living in San Agustín de Laredo, upon learning that the Villa was to be part of the US territory, decided to remain Mexican and stayed in the southern part of the river. These families even dug up their dead to move them and bury them in Nuevo Laredo, so that they would remain Mexicans. Hence the motto of the city: "Always with the Fatherland".
Since then, each June 15 commemorates those with a deep patriotic sense who founded what is now Nuevo Laredo.
The city of Nuevo Laredo inherits its name from the old San Agustín de Laredo, which is established on the right bank of the Rio Grande in the mid-eighteenth century, and this in turn from the province of Santander in northern Spain.
Once signed the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which establishes the new boundaries between Mexico and the United States of North America, the Villa is divided into two. As a way of longing for lost territory, the Mexican side is called Nuevo Laredo.
The name of Laredo, comes from glaretum and means "sandy, place full of gravel." Another opinion states that Laredo means in euskaro language "dehesas or pastorajes temperate, soft, beautiful".
Originally, this territory was called Villa de Nuevo Laredo, later, in 1891, the State Congress decided to elevate the Villa to city rank, being called Ciudad Laredo de Tamaulipas; However, after the Mexican Revolution, custom prevailed and the name of Nuevo Laredo is re-used
Chronology of historical events
- 1755 The May 15 of 1755, by order of Colonel José de Escandón, Tomás Sánchez founds the town of San Agustín de Laredo in the place where Laredo, Texas is currently located.
- 1757 At the request of Escandón, the real visitors José Tienda de Cuervo and Agustín López de Cámara Alta, inspect all the towns founded in Nuevo Santander.
- 1767 A second inspection visit is made to the colony of Nuevo Santander, headed by the royal visitors Juan Fernando de Palacio and José Osorio y Llamas, with the repartimiento of lands, thus creating private property in the colony. During the month of May of 1767, the visitors distribute lots and lots or ranches of Laredo, making the urban layout of the town on both banks of the Rio Grande.
- 1768 José Martínez de Sotomayor, was elected first mayor of Laredo.
- 1772 Laredo is established in a military corps called Volante Company, composed of presidial soldiers to defend the population from the attack of the Indians.
- 1783 The first school in Laredo opens.
- 1790 The lipan Indians attack Laredo. They made the garrison run, they blew up the powder keg and occupied the parade ground.
- 1813 Joaquín de Arredondo, realist, military commander of the Internal Provinces of the East, organizes and departs from Laredo to fight insurgent rebels in the Medina River.
- 1824 The National Congress admits the union of the former colony of Nuevo Santander as the State of Tamaulipas. Laredo was the only Tamaulipas population established on both banks of the Rio Grande.
- 1842 A great flood of the Rio Grande leaves the town of Laredo almost in ruins. Troops of the Texas army plunder Laredo.
- 1846 Mirabeau B. Lamar, former president of the Republic of Texas commands the troop of 80 men of the United States Army invading Laredo, the November 8.
- 1847 Lamar orders the mayor of Laredo, Andrés Martínez, to lift a census, throwing this document a total population, on both banks of the Rio Grande, of 1,891 inhabitants. Andrés Martínez crosses the Rio Grande and organizes the municipality of the new village, in the western part of the primitive Laredo.
- 1848 The first municipal elections are held in the town of Nuevo Laredo, with mayor Guadalupe García being elected.
- 1855 General Santiago Vidaurri, governor of Nuevo León and military commander of Nuevo Leon, Coahuila and Tamaulipas, establishes the Border Customs Office of Nuevo Laredo. He was appointed first administrator, Mr. Antonio Taméz.
- 1860 The civil registry is established.
- 1863 In an extraordinary session of the town council and town hall held at the 4 in July, only the French invasion was protested.
- 1867 The city council celebrates the restoration of the Republic, according to a communication received on May 22 by the district's political chief. The name of mayor for the president of the town hall is abandoned, and Mr. Luis Ramos, who presided over it this year, takes the name of municipal president, a name that is used to date.
- 1869 The telegraph office was installed here, building the first telegraphic line to communicate Nuevo Laredo with Guerrero city, Tamaulipas.
- 1881 The population is united to the capital of the Republic. Inauguration of the railway line of the company of the Mexican National Railroad.
- 1881 The first local newspaper El Laderense, edited by Mr. Juan E. Richer, begins to be published.
- 1883 The General Porfirio Díaz Bridge is built, the first international bridge for pedestrians and vehicles between the two Laredos.
- 1885 The local telephone service is inaugurated and with Laredo, Texas.
- 1888 Public electric lighting is inaugurated during the month of September.
- 1891 The 198 decree of the state legislature elevates the city of Nuevo Laredo to the rank of city, with the name of Laredo city of Tamaulipas.
- 1892 The first plant for the supply of drinking water is inaugurated.
- 1914 The huertistas forces, when leaving the population, they burn the city, consuming the fire the main buildings, among others, the municipal palace.
- 1915 General Maclovio Herrera dies in the vicinity of the city, on 17 day in April.
- 1924 The Federal Board of Material Improvements was established, which was in charge of all the infrastructure and urban equipment works, until its extinction in 1979.
- 1930 September 1 opens, the first high school.
- 1940 The building of the Federal Palace that houses all public administration units is inaugurated.
- 1941 The first Nuevo Laredo High School opens its doors.
- 1954 As a result of the last major flood of the Rio Grande in June of this year, the only bridge for vehicles and pedestrians has to be dynamited. It is built with the intervention of the army of the United States of North America, a provisional one.
- 1962 The first maquiladora in the entire northern border opens its doors in Nuevo Laredo, the AC Nielsen company.
- 1976 The number two international bridge, Juarez and Lincoln, is inaugurated.
- 1983 The Nuevo Laredo racecourse-galgódromo is inaugurated.
- Manuel Benavides Writer.
- Jesús Ma. García González (1907-), civil and political engineer
- Rafael García Ortega lawyer, journalist and writer.
- Roberto Garza Garza doctor, researcher.
- Gregorio Garza Salinas (1891-1981), politician. He was the substitute governor of 1924 to 1925.
- Professor Juvenal Boone Flores. Teacher
- Juan E. Richer. Writer and journalist
- Carmen Ulibarri de Rendón. Distinguished lady. She stood out as a writer, feminist and philanthropist.
- Profra. Emilia Cantú de Zárate Distinguished teacher
- Profr. Martín M. Herrera . Teacher, poet, speaker and journalist.
- Mauricio González de la Garza. Outstanding novelist and writer, dedicated to philosophy and letters.
- María de Jesús de la Rosa "La Coronela". Revolutionary and philanthropist.
- Manuel Benavides. He provided important historical information. He wrote a text about the history of Nuevo Laredo.
- Dr. Roberto G. Garza Garza. Doctor in oncology
- Gregorio Garza Salinas. Politician
- Santos Guzmán Treviño. Teacher by profession
- Ismael Villarreal Peña. He was Municipal President and Judge of the Civil Registry. His love of history led him to publish his book "Cinco Villas del Norte", as well as other writings on the history of Nuevo Laredo; He also collaborated with his mother in the voluminous work "The Revolution in the North."
- Juan Barrera Gómez. Journalist and poet.
- Marcel Pla. French Marist Brother
- Arq. Florentino Medina. Painter and sculptor.
- Matilde Mattei de Ferrara. Writer and philanthropist.
- Profr. Rubén Miranda Villalba. Teacher and composer
- Octavian Sosa. Lawyer and historian.
- Ema Sáenz Zárate de Delgado. Teacher and artist
- Lauro Luis Longoria. Businessman and promoter.
- Rosendo Caballero. Of the initiators of the Association of Customs Agents of Nuevo Laredo
- Andrés Martínez. Last Mexican president of Laredo. After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is responsible for reorganizing the City of Nuevo Laredo. He is considered the first president.
- Salvador Cuéllar. Symbol of Mexican border patriotism.
- Profr. Juan N. Mancillas. He arrived in Nuevo Laredo from 1920 when he took over the management of the Miguel F. Martínez school. Founder of the Excélsior School. In September, 1937 founded the Bernardino del Raso school.
- Hugo Pedro González Lugo. Lawyer and politician.
- Héctor González Lugo. Doctor and politician
- Eloy Uribe Rancher. He received the Medal of Merit for Livestock granted by the federal government.
- Colonel Rafael M. Pedrajo. Thanks to his sound management in front of this dependence, important works were carried out for the benefit of the citizens.
- Rafael Tijerina Carranza. Founder of the XEFE, first local television station.
- Heriberto Deándar Amador. Pioneer in the area of local contemporary journalism. He founded the newspaper El Mañana de Nuevo Laredo.
- José Melquiades Serratos Esparza. First federal inspector of basic education in Nuevo Laredo.
- Manuel Adame Garza. Administrator of the local Customs for more than nine years that supported different actions and projects in favor of Nuevo Laredo.
- Lic. Juan Manuel Ramírez García. He was acting governor of Tamaulipas and president of the Superior Court of Justice of the State in Nuevo Laredo.
- Daniel Chávez. Journalist of the time of the Mexican Revolution.
- Mother Josefa Ugarte. He has dedicated his life to caring for the sick.
- Jesús Espinosa Rodríguez. He was an outstanding railroad man who distinguished himself by his heroism by avoiding an accident of great magnitude.
- Tomás Sánchez. Founder of the town of San Agustín de Laredo in 1755.
- José de Escandón. He was born in Soto la Marina, Spain in the year 1700. He began the colonization process with the establishment of the town of Llera on Christmas Day 1748, followed by the foundation of other towns to add twenty, settled in two stages between the years of 1748 and 1751, being the colonists for the most part people already born in Mexico in the Huasteca, in the Nuevo Reyno de León and in Coahuila, San Luis Potosí and Querétaro, considering the town of Santander as capital and naming the Colony New Santander. The colonization established populations even beyond this current with the founding of Laredo, on the left bank of it and with the establishment of the Hacienda de Dolores twelve leagues northeast of the old Revilla in territory that today belongs to Texas. He died in 1770 in Mexico City. Colonizer of Nuevo Santander under whose authorization the town of San Agustín de Laredo was founded.
- Fray Andrés de Olmos. Colonizer of the Coast of the Mexican Breast in the middle of the XVI century. Founder of the village of Tamaholipa, from whom the current state of Tamaulipas is named.
- María de Lourdes Durán Vázquez. Nurse.
- Lucio Blanco. He was born in the town of Nadadores, Coahuila in the year 1879. He joined Madero joining the revolution fighting with irregular forces against Porfiria and later the rebels led by Orozco against President Madero, obtaining the rank of lieutenant colonel in 1911. On June 7, 1922, the revolutionary general was the victim of a deception and, trying to enter Mexican territory through Nuevo Laredo, was assassinated when crossing the Rio Grande.
- Maclovio Herrera. Like so many brave men who gave their lives to the revolution, Maclovio Herrera Cano always figured-after his separation from Villismo, in the most important movements of Carranza's constitutionalism. When the fight of factions untied the general Herrera decided to leave to Pancho Villa, because it considered more together and democratic the ideals of the carrancismo. His father, Don José de la Luz Herrera, was disconcerted by the events.
- Santiago M. Belden. He is considered as one of the municipal presidents who promoted the most public works for the benefit of Nuevo Laredo.
- Octavian Longoria. Businessman and banker.
Public clock. Its construction was carried out by the Federal Board of Material Improvements, at the initiative of the “Verdi” academy and it was inaugurated on September 15, 1926. The structure of the building consists of a tower Art Nouveau formed by three bodies covered with white quarry. Placed on a square base with four staircases, the height of the building is approximately 15 meters. In the second body it has four columns of classic style and in the third one is the machinery of a clock with four covers.
Monument to Benito Juárez. This monument was inaugurated on July 18, 1956 with Mr. Adolfo Ruiz Cortínes President of the Republic, Dr. Héctor González Lugo municipal president and Lic. Agustín Arriaga Rivera President of the JFMM. It is a sculpture cast in bronze almost 3 meters high, placed on a classic column, covered with quarry with carved motifs, approximately 8 meters long, which is born in the center of a quarry fountain, with a circular platform and garden work. The sculpture was the work of the prestigious sculptor Juan Olaguibel. It is currently in good condition and can be visited at any time. It is one of the most beautiful monuments and apparently the highest of its kind.
Monument to the Founders. Located at the southern end of Avenida Reforma at its confluence with Avenida César López de Lara, in the city of Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas. The monument is made up of a truncated pyramid approximately three meters high and three meters on each of its four sides, topped by a sculpture; on a plinth of about fifty square meters covered with black quarry tiles. The pyramid is lined with small plates of volcanic stone, known as the red tezontle, and serves as a pedestal for a three-meter-high bronze cast sculptural group composed of three human figures representing a family: the father, the mother and a infant. The man holds a flag in his right hand and the attitude of the group makes one think of the moment when, after crossing the Rio Bravo, they stepped onto Mexican soil. The front of this sculpture faces south and on the front of its base it appears in high relief, signed by the sculptor: F. Zúñiga, 1958.
Monument to the Mother. It is a monument made of quarry and placed on a concrete base. The monument is located on Paseo Colón and Reforma. This monument was paid for in part by the financial contributions of the local basic level students.
Flagpole. In the month of the homeland, when the people in general increase their nationalist fervor, Nuevo Laredo sees installed in the space of the Morelos Archaeological Park, a gigantic flagpole where the flag would be hoisted. Under the care of General Urbano Pérez Bañuelos, DEM. and President Marcos Alejandro García, preparations began several days in advance to place the gigantic 102-meter-high mast at its base. After obtaining the four cranes that would raise the flagpole, the work began at around seven in the morning on September 18, 1997, and in just over an hour the work had finished, with 4 workers proceeding to tighten the nuts of 6 inches to be secured on the 24 three-inch-thick screws, which were anchored in a six-meter-deep basement to reinforced concrete. The weight of the mast is 120 tons and its height is 102 meters. At the top is installed a lightning protection system and protection lights for air navigation. The head responsible for this installation was the engineer Antonio Ortiz Martínez. The flagpole, which means another monument to the city, will be under the surveillance of the Military Garrison of the Plaza.
The cathedral, of colonial style, was built in 1775; temple with monumental sculptures of the twelve apostles, the clock tower, located on the north side of Plaza Hidalgo, quadrangular structure of brick, mortar and granite, all white, about 12 meters high, on a plinth, approximately 3 meters high, with four staircases. The auction is a clock with four covers and a small bell that marks the hours, quarters and stockings. It is a beautiful work, well proportioned, in style with influence of the so-called Art Nouveau, erected in 1926; the old customs building, built in 1887; the federal palace built in 1940; the old railway station, built at the end of the 19th century.
Sculptures High relief of bronze, allegory with two female nudes, placed in the front of the facade of the main building of the extinct Federal Board of Material Improvements.
Paintings Mural of metallic scrap, designed and built by the famous sculptor Manuel Felguérez under the auspices of the former Federal Board of Materials Improvement, was originally placed on the south side of the esplanade Esteban Baca Calderón; recently it was removed to one side of the Civic Center, in front of Héroe de Nacataz street. Mural of the Italian mosaic, on the wall of the back facade of the building of the old Water and Sanitation System, today the Water and Sewerage Commission (COAPA), which represents the historical origins of Nuevo Laredo and its evolution, erected by the extinct Junta Federal Improvement Materials, in the 1950 decade.
Literature, Music and Poetry Of the literary genre, the works written by Mauricio González de la Garza, entitled El Río de la Misericordia, El Padre Pier, El Rey de Oros, The End of the Kingdom, El Primo Abel y Última Llamada; by Juan Gómez Barrera, Fragment of my life, The Son of my Father, Because I killed Villasana; of Manuel Benavides, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, his History and his Men; and of Rodolfo González de la Garza, The Last Spanish Foundation in New Spain and the Inquisition in Monclova, Coah., in the mid-seventeenth century, among others. The poetry: Canto a mi Pueblo, by Juan Gómez Barrera.
The 15 of June of each year is commemorated, from 1948, the foundation of the city, remembering that the 15 of June of 1848, the Laderenses who did not want to be foreigners in their own land, exhumed the remains of their ancestors, crossed with them the Bravo River, settling on the right bank, the origin of the current Nuevo Laredo.
1957 has been holding an industrial, agricultural, commercial and livestock fair, during the first half of September, choosing a queen who presides over all the celebrations. The fair has its own land, to the west of the city, with adequate facilities where auditions, varieties, palenques, mechanical games and artisanal, commercial, agricultural and livestock exhibitions are held.
The entitled One Very Manly Woman. During the time of the Reformation, and during the political instability of the government of General Cortina, the mayor of the town summoned the neighbors (men) to express their fears and the need to determine their position; the fearful neighbors did not know what to say or what to do, it was then when a lady, Mrs. María Benavides, leading them and hitting the table, put herself at the head of them and declared herself liberal. Another one of the legends is: so that the Wedge tightens to be of the Same Palo, that relates that one of the Indians of the tribes that ravaged the region at the beginning of the last century, joined the ranks of the Mexican army and came to be Major and commander of the army in Nuevo Laredo and from that moment the hostile Indians moved away from the region, thus giving birth to a phrase that has turned the Republic around.
The local gastronomy is very similar to that of the Mexican northeast, although with a marked influence of Neolean gastronomy. They are consumed: flour tortillas, dried beef (crushed with egg and dried meat stew); roasted kid, shepherd or fried; roasted pork, stewed with garlic, cumin and broad chili.
Glass blowing workshops and the iron forge, where curiosities are made that are sold to American tourists.
Woolen hat, jeans, check cotton shirt, booties, wide belt for both sexes.
The typical attire of the state, the "cuera tamaulipeca" is also worn.
The municipal head is located between 27º 30' north latitude and 99º 30' west longitude at a height of 150 meters above sea level. The municipality is located to the north of the State of Tamaulipas, limits to the north with the United States of North America and with the State of Nuevo Leon; to the south and to the west with the same state, and with the Municipality of Guerrero and to the west again with the United States of North America.
Its territorial extension is 1,334.02 km², which represents 2.08% of the total State area. It is integrated by 80 localities, of which the most important are: Nuevo Laredo (municipal seat), La Concordia and La Sandía.
A single river, the Bravo or Grande del Norte; it serves as a dividing line between Mexico and the United States of America has also two natural spillways, the creek of Coyote, south of the Alanzana, west minor streams are: the Laguito, Estero Reventado, Abandoned, Sandra , the Ortillo, the Carrizo. Black Waters, The Government, Ramireño and Cedena.
It is characterized by being the driest and most extreme of the state, with large oscillations in temperature ranging from 14º C below zero in winter, to 40º C over zero in summer; Its average annual rainfall is 472.5 mm³ and the prevailing winds come from the south.
It is semi-flat and does not register important heights or depressions.
Classification and land use
The 10% of the surface corresponds to the vertisol and vertisol pelic soil, located northeast of the municipality. To the northeast is the lithosol soils, which comprise an 35% and the center of the municipality predominates the soils Xerosol calcic, which comprise the remaining percentage. With regard to the trend of the soil 423.43 Km² correspond to the ejidal regime, distributed in 14 ejidos and 1,242.07 Km² to the small property.
Flora and fauna
The flora consists of forage grasses, salted grasses, cactus of different species and shrubs.
To the west of the municipality there is a great variety of wild fauna, considered as minor, composed of coyote, deer, quail and pigeon.