Cancer in Childhood and Adolescence

  • Second cause of death between the 4 and 15 years of age (9% of deaths).
  • 2007 and 2008 presented 24 deaths in the state and in 2010 they were 7.
  • From 65% to 90% of families with children and adolescents without social security who suffer from cancer do not have economic resources for their treatment.
  • The 80% of patients have to face catastrophic expenses.
  • The approximate dropout of children with cancer is around 3% because they currently have a trust.
To provide children and adolescents with an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary, timely and quality treatment given by experts; in accredited hospitals for the care of cancer in children under 18 years; thus contributing to decrease mortality from this disease.

The 5 of January of 2005, is created by presidential decree the National Council for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer in childhood and Adolescence, as a permanent instance of coordination of the public, Social and Private sectors.

In Tamaulipas the State Council for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer in Childhood and Adolescence is installed in the 2006 and the Technical, Financial and Regulatory Committees are formed, which meet 4 times a year, and the 15 of 2011 is reinstated in February .

During the 2007, the Children's Hospitals of Tamaulipas and General de Tampico "Dr. Carlos Canseco "for the management of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and at 2008 the Children's Hospital accredited for the management of solid tumors.

Hacemos ¿Qué?
Propose policies and establish national strategies, guidelines, and procedures regarding prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children under 18 years.

What do we do?
To reduce mortality due to this cause in children under 18 years, and improve the quality of life of patients, their families and society.

How do we do it?
Through the coordination and coordination of actions of the public, private and social sectors, in the technical, regulatory and financial spheres; optimizing resources, ensuring comprehensive and quality care, promoting research, and promoting continuous education for health personnel and the general public, for the timely detection of cancer.

Catastrophic Expenses
The art. 77 bis 29 of the general health law provides for the creation of a reserve fund by the federation to support the financing of treatments and medicines associated with them. In compliance with the aforementioned provision, the Ministry of Health of the Federation managed the Constitution of the PROTECTION FUND AGAINST CATASTROPHIC EXPENDITURE through a public trust called, ESCROW OF THE SOCIAL PROTECTION SYSTEM OF HEALTH.

There are other types of expenses that are generated during the treatment and that support it, such as:

  • Transfers of the patient and their relatives, from their place of residence to the treating medical unit. To support 15 in February, 2011 signed a collaboration agreement between the DIF, Secretary of Health of Tamaulipas and Will Against Cancer.
  • Transfers of the patient from a first level medical unit to a highly specialized medical unit.
  • Food and lodging of the patient and their relatives.
  • Specialized external studies.
  • Orthopedic devices and prostheses (eye and limb).

The accredited hospitals have a pediatric oncology area for the management of these children and with trained subspecialists to provide this service. It also has the support of civil associations that participate in the expenses generated by patients derived from the care of these pathologies and their complications.

80% of childhood cancer cases are potentially curable if detected early and receive appropriate treatment. <

"Courses-Regional Training Workshops for the Timely Diagnosis of Cancer in Minors of 18 Years"

The 14 of July of the 2009 is signed the Institutional Agreement between Children's Hospital of Tamaulipas and the general hospitals of Victoria, Matamoros Reynosa, Nuevo Laredo, San Fernando and Civiles de Victoria, Nuevo Laredo and Valle Hermoso. The purpose of this is to establish the bases by which hospitals will refer their patients under 18 years with leukemia and solid tumors to accredited hospitals.

In November, 2007 in Tampico Tamaulipas hosted the Regional Training Course for first contact personnel for the timely diagnosis of cancer, attending doctors from Nuevo León, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí, and at the state level, training was given to first-rate physicians from Attention to carry out the timely detection of cancer.

The 16 and 17 of June of 2008 was held the First Congress of Early Detection of Childhood Cancer in Tamaulipas, with the objective of increasing the level of knowledge of health personnel in timely detection and immediate management of the most frequent cancer groups in children and adolescents and sensitize the population about the importance of collaborating in the treatment.

The 29,30 and 31 days of July of 2009 in Mexico City took place the second Training Course on Opportunistic Diagnosis of Cancer in Minors addressed to medical oncologists of 18 years and the 9,10 and 11 of September of this year second course of update in nursing for the care of the pediatric oncological patient and the 22 in October, the II Congress of Cancer in Childhood and Adolescence was held.


  • Timely treatment
  • Better prognosis and survival.
  • Decrease in organic and psychological sequelae.
  • Lower cost
  • Improvement in the quality of life.

Strategies for Timely Diagnosis of Childhood Cancer

  • EDUCATION to the community.
  • TRAINING continues addressed to the health team of first contact.
  • Permanent UPDATE of the pediatrician and general emergency physicians and external consultation.
  • TRAINING continues to paramedical personnel.

When to suspect cancer in the child

  • Intermittent.
  • Persistent.
  • Accompanied by systemic symptoms (sweating, paleness, weight loss, asthenia and adynamia).
  • Presentation as FOD in the 10% of cases.
  • It does not improve with antibiotics.
  • Infections and immunological diseases should be ruled out.

Paleness and / or hemorrhage

  • Progressive,
  • It does not improve with iron or folates,
  • It may be accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly.


  • Bruising and ecchymosis without apparent cause.
  • Appearance of petechiae.
  • Gingivorrhagia and epistaxis.
  • It is associated little with solid tumors.

Headache and / or neurological signs

  • Morning, Recurrent, progressive.
  • Associated with persistent vomiting.
  • Interrupts sleep
  • Associated with neurological manifestations.
  • Changes of character
  • Visual disturbances or papilledema.
  • Associated with abnormal neurological examination.

Bone pain

  • Persistent and increasing intensity.
  • More than 80% of patients with Ewing's Sarcoma and Osteosarcoma begin with intermittent pain that progresses to constant.
  • Functional limitation
  • Increase in volume and asymmetry of the affected segment.
  • It does not give up with habitual analgesics.

Conduct to suspect Cancer in a child

  • Perform analysis and complete physical examination. Derive to the next level.
  • Pediatrician II level will discard or base the suspicion and send to pediatric oncology, according to the network of hospitals to confirm or discard the Dx.
  • Do not delay the reference by performing sophisticated or specific examinations, in general Bh, radiography and sometimes ultrasound are required.


  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.


  • Myeloblastic leukemia.
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Hodgkin's disease
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Astrocytoma
  • Osteosarcoma.
  • Soft tissue sarcoma.
  • Wilms tumor.
  • Neuroblastoma.
  • Bone marrow transplant.

And in the 2008, leukemias and solid tumors were included in the Tamaulipas children's hospital and in Tampico hospital only leukemia pending accreditation for solid tumors.

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